As part of the lottery funded project, April 2017, the Melton Constable Trust interviewed a number of local people who had memories of Fakenham East Railway Station.
You can listen here to that recording along with a selection of music from the 1960’s.
The Melton Constable Trust would like to thank the Veronica Awdry Charitable Trust, Fakenham Town Council, The Ernest Cook Trust and the National Lottery Heritage Fund for their support on this project.
Melton Constable Railway Station and the Locomotive works on the Midland and Great Northern Railway (M&GN) played a significant role in Norfolk. The busy Melton Constable workshops were nicknamed the Crewe Works of North Norfolk where locomotives were built and repaired. The railway provided work and to attract and accommodate the families, a gasworks, Railway Institute, shops and houses were built.
In May of 2017, our reporter Paul Young interviewed John Bishop who worked on the M&GN as a fireman on steam locomotives. He also talks of the railway accident from 5th November 1946 just outside Norwich City Station.
To listen to the interview please click here:
After the interview, John showed me the picture he had of the accident and an in-house account covering the accident which reads as follows, author unknown:
Engine Number 5534 called by the crews “A Knock John”
Driver Henry Scott, Fireman David Jackson (Tuby) Guard Bob Collins.
On overtime and hoping to travel home in the guards van, driver and fireman of an earlier working into City Station, Driver Jimmy Greaves and Fireman John Bishop. John had been up to the engine intending to ride back to Melton on the footplate with Tuby being school pals the natural thing to do, however Henry was having none of that, saying “one of you are enough trouble let alone two!” John returned to the brake van to ride home with Bob Collins the guard.
As it was this was a very lucky event for John, as in the vent that follows he would of without a doubt have been killed that night. There are various views leading up to the accident, though what I have pieced together is very credible.
It had been a recognised procedure over the years and strictly adhered to, that the points out of the good siding being that they were operated by the Shunters and not the Signalman be at all times switched to the stops on the banks of the River Wensum this way no wagon may get out on to the main line accidental. It was not one of the best nights to be out, a foggy night and not improved by the mist rising off the River Wensum. The train now made up and ready to leave Norwich City goods yard for Melton Constable with what was known as the last goods.
The head shunter in anticipation thrown the points over for that train when it was ready to leave considering the conditions at the time, a seemly thing to do. However another member of the yard staff passing and seeing the points in the position they were in and remembering the usual procedure threw them back to direct traffic to the stops.
Meanwhile, Jimmy Greaves and John Bishop enjoying the home comforts of the warm stove in the guards van, not the slightest idea of what was to follow. The guard having exchanged documnents with the head shunter climbs into the guards van to join his welcome company for the return journey. The head shunter to let the signalman know all was ready to leave as and when he was ready to take them.
The crew of the engine all prepared for the return journey awaits the signal to go into the off position that they may move off. It was not long before the clattering of the signal as it was switched into the right way position.
Henry now standing on the raised step by the drivers seat, right hand on the regulator, shoulder leaning on the boiler casing enabling a gradual pressure of steam to the pistons, the damp atmosphere and heavy train behind gave every possibilty of the wheels slipping. Henry increasing pressure as the train was taking momentum, Tuby on the other hand leaning out into the darkness looking for the guards signal. A lamp swinging from side to side from the brake indicating that all was well and the whole train following in the manner intended.
He could not yet see any light from the brake, leaning even further out clinging to the uprights of the steps up onto the engine attempting to draw the guards attention by swinging his own lamp the front lamp from his cycle he had brought with him and still nothing. Above the noise of the engine beat he called out to Henry to give him another blow on the whistle.
Henry reaching up for the whistle cord suddenly found himself being thrown again the boiler and towards the drivers window as the engine struck the buffer stops and started to downward career towards the river and lurching on to its side. His body thrust against the the seat his legs coming up off the step he had been standing on suddenly forced towards the fire hole door by Tuby’s body as he was flung from his previous position gripping the hand rails. Leaning out as he was saved him from the fire irons consisting of a bent dart, straight dart and slack shovel. One of these alone would certainly have caused some serious injury these tools with other loose equipment bedded themselves into the space beside the boiler, exactly where John Bishop would have been sitting had Henry allowed him on the engine.
The engine had now come to a halt the water from the river getting into the ash pan and up into the firebox causing the cab to become an inferno of steam and belching flame. The train wagons loaded heavily still pushing from behind forcing the tender up into the air while two wagons ended up under the tender. In the meantime the tender plate rupturing the floor boards of the cab momentarily making it impossible for Tuby to get up the steam and belching flame making it a very uncomely position. The whistle had now drooped open issuing its ear splitting howl, accompanied by escaping steam from the safety valve all adding to the confusion surrounding the engine crew.
Henry having gone out of the cab leaving Tuby alone watching as the water from the tender filler hole cover now flung back pours over the coal bringing with it small pieces of coal and other items off the tender expecting at any moment to have one of the large lumps of coal to land upon him adding to the already discomfort. Seeing the ring of light below the side of the cab now above him with a final effort makes it out into the night air.
Tuby finds Henry who is fine though shaken, the barb wire put by the river as part of the war defences makes getting up on the goods yard difficult. He walks back down the train and is accosted by the shunter “Who are you!?” He tells the man, who when advised no serious injury had taken place was overcome with emotion with the thoughts of what he may have been responsible for and disappeared into the night.
In the brake van John Bishop was thrown against the the brake sheet causing damage to his right arm. Jimmy Greaves had injury to his body and had to go to hospital the next day. The guard I believe was not injured they had a recessed seat and if he was using it that may have helped to save him.
The staff at the station were in a quandary as how they may get the crews back to Melton, some clown suggest should someone not put the injectors on? With much discussion a taxi was called for and tw very wet dirty engine men and the crew from the brake loaded into this oversized taxi and taken back to Melton. Tuby now had to cycle home with no light this he had lost in the accident his concern was the local Policeman may see him.
The next thing he know is Mother calling him up the stairs she having no knowledge of the whole incident. A man wants you from the works she said thinking someone was enquiring how he was after the accident he came down. The messenger says can you come on duty the other crew that would be John Bishop and Jimmy Greaves are off sick and can’t take their turn today.
This is from the horse’s mouth and I am prepared to believe it fact and true.
Today this would have resulted in serious counselling and compensation. I add railway men played a part in the war effort as many of their counterparts they received no medals for their efforts.
History was made on the Mid Norfolk Railway over the weekend of the 19th and 20th May 2018 when public timetabled services returned to Worthing for the first time since 1964. A train consisting of the steam locomotive GWR Hawksworth Pannier Tank number 9466 and diesel Class 04 D2334 with five carriages ran the passengers along the line from Wymondham to Worthing.
The next stage of the ongoing development will be to reach the village of North Elmham where rail freight was still in operation up until 1989. From there a mile and a half of track will need to be relaid to get to the Mid Norfolk Railway’s Northern Station, County School.
On the Saturday, Project Officer for the Norfolk Orbital Railway, Paul Young travelled the route and spoke to people involved with the weekends activities and captured some of the sounds of the train running over the Worthing section.
You can listen here:
The Mid Norfolk Railway relies on volunteers and if you would like to be involved you can find out more information here: Mid Norfolk Railway Volunteer
Cover photograph: Worthing Crossing taken by Andy Marrison.
Saturday May 19th 2018. History in the making on the Mid Norfolk Railway as we see the return of public timetabled rail passenger services from Dereham to Worthing crossing after a 54 year break.
Listen here to 9466 crossing a bridge near to Worthing crossing with the first train on Saturday with the return trip to Dereham.
Here is a weblink to the 9466 Locomotive Group website
Broadland District Council, Norwich City Council and South Norfolk Council, working with Norfolk County Council, have agreed to work together to prepare the Greater Norwich Local Plan (GNLP), which, once adopted, will set out where development of new housing should be provided up to 2036. The plan also covers a range of other topics, such as how the area should plan for transport, infrastructure, the environment, employment and climate change.
Information has been widely promoted with in the Council areas and the GNLP state that they “can only succeed if the views of the public, developers, services and infrastructure providers are understood”. A series of consultations were held from Monday January 8th 2018 until it closed on Thursday 22nd March where comments and views could be made. The next step is the “Regulation 19” stage which is scheduled to happen in summer of 2019. This is when a draft plan will be published and there will be an opportunity to provide comment for consideration by a planning inspector.
The consultation provoked considerable discussion and views. In March we were sent a letter from Gail Mayhew who wanted to share her views and you can read it here.
If you have any comments then you can email our Project officer, Paul Young: firstname.lastname@example.org
Whitwell & Reepham Station was opened on the 1st July 1882 and was part of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway’s (M&GN) branch from the main line at Melton Constable to Norwich City. The line was used for passengers and freight goods bringing coal from the Midlands to Norfolk and peat, for burning, dug out of the Broads together with grain for use outside the county.
In the 1950’s with car ownership becoming more popular and affordable together with more freight being moved to the roads, rail usage started to decline. British Rail were losing money and radical decisions and cut backs were made. On the 2nd March 1959, the line was closed for passenger use however the station remained open for goods traffic until 1st May 1964. However the track through the station remained in place up until 1985 for movements of concrete products from Lenwade station, two miles away.
After the station closed faced an uncertain future, it was used for a variety of different purposes from a coach park to tree surgery. There was even talk at the time to relocate the station building and reassemble it at Holt for use by the newly formed North Norfolk Railway however Stalham Station building was used instead. Meanwhile once the track had been lifted, the track bed was used as part of the Marriott’s Way, named in memory of William Marriott who was Chief Engineer and Manager of the Midland and Great Northern Railway (M&GN) for 41 years.
In September 2007, railway enthusiast and local businessman Mike Urry bought the station site. In 2008 the Whitwell and Reepham Preservation Society was formed and phased plans were drawn up for the development of the heritage railway. Phase one is returning the station to its original layout by relaying track, running trains and restoring the station buildings. The impressive signal box has been the most recent building project and there are plans later in the year to get it operational. Phase two is to extend the line along Marriott’s Way to Lenwade and then re-create the Themelthorpe curve to Reepham station. Phase three would be linking up with either the Mid Norfolk Railway or North Norfolk Railway.
Before the relaying of the track on the trackbed can start, clarity of ownership and permissions need to be granted so a petition has been raised to provide backing and support. The Whitwell and Reepham Preservation Society are keen to progress but not at the detriment of the users of the Marriott’s Way.
The petition seeks to:
Clarify the term “Railway Land” of the Lynn and Fakenham Railway Acts 1876/81.
The Whitwell & Reepham Railway Preservation Society are a Heritage Railway and have been running for over 10 years. We would like to relay track on an old track bed running from Whitwell & Reepham Station to Lenwade Station, making sure the existing users can still use the land as well. As part of the petition process they state that:
We would like the Government to:
1) Clarify the position of the Lynn and Fakenham Railway Act of 1876 to 1881, the Eastern & Midlands Act 1883 to 1885, and the other railway almaganations up to Network Rail times, and to confirm the land under the Lynn and Fakenham Act still does in fact have an act of parliament still in force for the land to be used as a railway.
2) Clarify who actually has preference over this land if the point above is true.
3) Provide us with a written statement of the above.
Here is a link to the petition: The Petition
Our Project Officer Paul Young visited Whitwell & Reepham station and spoke with Richard Bailey, the society’s Safety Manager. Richard has been with the group from the beginning in 2008 and has put in the petition.
Listen to the interview here:
Black and White photograph of Whitwell & Reepham Station copyright of the M&GN Circle.
The Norfolk Strategic Framework (NSF) consultation ran from the 2nd August to the 22nd September 2017 and since then then Norfolk’s Local Planning Authorities (including Norfolk County Council) have been reviewing all comments made, preparing responses and updating the document where this has been deemed necessary. In early January 2018 a new updated version of the NSF was released for public view.
There are a number of documents making up the main NSF to view them all please click here: Norfolk Strategic Framework
In the introduction, the aim of producing the framework is outlined as follows:
- Agree shared objectives and strategic priorities to improve outcomes for Norfolk and inform the preparation of future Local Plans.
- Demonstrate compliance with the duty to co-operate.
- Find efficiencies in the planning system through working towards the establishment of a shared evidence base.
- Influence subsequent high level plans (such as the Strategic Economic Plan).
- Maximise the opportunities to secure external funding to deliver against agreed objectives.
The project has been underway for over a year and four working groups have been established to pull together a shared evidence base on housing, employment, infrastructure and delivery issues. The working groups consist of Local Authority staff assisted by other organisations including the Environment Agency, Natural England, Anglian Water, UK Power Networks, Homes and Communities Agency and the New Anglia Local Enterprise Partnership.
Here we have a section of the Norfolk Strategic Framework: Transport Constraints covering Rail:
Overview and Summary
The rail network serving Norfolk is sparse: few settlements are connected to the rail network, and the network serves few destinations out of the county. There are two lines from London: the Great Eastern Main Line from London Liverpool Street via Ipswich to Norwich; and the Fenline / Great Northern Route from London King’s Cross via Cambridge to King’s Lynn. (King’s Lynn also has one train per day to London Liverpool Street.) Norwich is directly connected to Cambridge, Great Yarmouth, Lowestoft and Sheringham; and longer distance services via Peterborough to Liverpool.
Journey times by rail to major destinations outside the county are lengthy: for example it takes nearly two hours to get to London from Norwich, and four hours from Norwich to Birmingham (see Appendix, Figure A7).
Nine of the 21 Norfolk market towns are directly served by rail. Some of the larger market towns are some distance from their nearest rail connection, for example Dereham and Fakenham are both over half an hour travel time from the nearest station (see Figure 4).
Rail provides an important travel choice for commuters into the main centres, albeit only for those with a convenient service available.
Note: Journey times and distances are car journey times. Source: AA Route Planner
Existing Patterns of Usage
Norfolk has a very limited rail network, meaning that few of its towns are served by rail. Also, the services offered provide a very limited range of destinations and many have only one train per hour. In particular, services to the Midlands and Home Counties are poor. Whilst rail generally provides faster journeys to other major centres compared to road, average rail speeds compare poorly with connections between major centres out of the county (eg York to London) (see Appendix, Figure A7).
Norwich station is by far the busiest of all Norfolk stations. Usage has almost doubled in the past ten years, to over 4 million passengers per annum. The second busiest station is King’s Lynn. The importance of the lines to London is demonstrated by Diss being the third busiest station in the county, and Downham Market the fourth. (See Appendix, Figure A8.) Patronage at Norfolk stations on the King’s Lynn to London line has increased in recent years. Conversely, at Great Yarmouth patronage fell by 5% over the last year, relegating the station to fifth busiest station with around 440,000 passengers.
Whilst station usage has increased dramatically over the last ten years there are signs of the increase levelling off in the last two years. Some lines are reaching, or are at, capacity at peak times: the Bittern Line; services to Cambridge; and London services (Norwich services tend to be full towards the southern, London, end of the route only whereas King’s Lynn services can be full north of Cambridge). In describing lines as ‘at capacity’ it should be noted that this means that the existing trains, at their existing frequencies, are full. However, operators cannot lengthen trains because they do not have rolling stock that can be used and / or the infrastructure cannot accommodate longer trains, for example the platforms are not long enough. Additional frequencies cannot be provided because of – again – rolling stock and / or infrastructure constraints.
A number of stations on rural lines have very low usage – fewer than 100 per annum in the case of Buckenham – which is a reflection of both low catchment areas as well as infrequent services.
The frequency of rail services from Norwich to Cambridge and Peterborough (for onward services to the north and the Midlands), and from King’s Lynn south to Cambridge and London, is limited by infrastructure at Ely. Here, the available track capacity, its layout, and the numbers and arrangement of level crossings restrict the numbers of services that can pass through. Across most of the network journey times are limited by infrastructure including the numbers of level crossings. Only the London lines (to Norwich and King’s Lynn) are electrified; all other services need to use diesel rolling stock. There is a national shortage of diesel stock, meaning that additional services – in the form of higher frequencies – or longer trains cannot be provided. Shortages of stock can also lead to disruption on existing timetabled services in the case of, for example, train breakdowns.
Known rail capacity issues:
As set out above some lines are at capacity. This includes:
Bittern Line from Sheringham to Norwich in peak times. These trains can be full from south of North Walsham in the morning peak coming in to Norwich.
Cambridge to Norwich in peak times. Again, these services can be full coming in to Norwich in peak times, and also between Cambridge and Ely due to Cambridge commuters.
London to Norwich. These services are full going in to London in the mornings towards the south of the line, and again coming out of London in the evenings. Passengers can have to stand all the way to Ipswich.
Journey times and rail frequencies between main economic centres (within the county and to major destinations outside) Figure A7 in the appendix shows journey times and frequencies to a range of destinations. For business trips, business people need connections to markets and suppliers and – ideally – need to be able to get there and back in half a day (including time for the business part of the trip as well as travel time); although will accept a full day. It can be seen from the table that few destinations offer easy half-day connections with even trips to Cambridge involving 2 hours 40 travel time from Norwich (there and back and excluding any wait time or travel to and from the stations at either end). King’s Lynn to Cambridge, at 45m each way, is more convenient but hampered presently by a frequency of every hour outside of the peak times. Some trips, such as to Birmingham, are difficult even given a whole day (eight hours train travel time (from Norwich) alone).
Within the county out of peak times all services except Norwich to Diss have hourly frequency, which militates against use of the train for business people. Otherwise journey times are reasonable. However, the main issue is lack of connectivity. Only nine of the 21 market towns are directly served by rail. Some of the larger market towns are some distance from their nearest rail connection, for example Dereham and Fakenham are both over half an hour travel time from the nearest station (see Figure 4). Even where towns are connected to rail, there are often no direct connections. King’s Lynn to Norwich by rail for example takes 2 hours 20m because travel involves going via Ely where there is a need to change trains.
The National Travel Survey 2015 shows that the average duration of a commuter journey in the UK is 31 minutes. The following figure shows rail journey times into Norwich, King’s Lynn and Great Yarmouth. This illustrates that, for people living close to or having easy access to stations (and their workplace being conveniently sited for the station), rail provides an important travel choice into the main centres.
Access to airports is covered below in the Access to International Hubs section.
Forecast rail passenger use:
The Anglia Route Study, Network Rail March 2016, looked ahead over the next 30 years. It forecast an increase in numbers of passengers on services into London on the Great Eastern Main Line of over 30% (or 2,200 extra passengers in the peak hour) by 2023 and 75% (or 5,100 passengers) by 2034. The study stated “passengers on these services will be travelling in crowded conditions for a long time. Without intervention, services will be over seated capacity and between 40 per cent and 100 per cent of standing capacity taken up for well over 20 minutes. Services that start from Norwich, Stowmarket, Witham and Chelmsford tend to have the highest load factors and demand is at, or exceeds, seated capacity now.”
For cross country services, including Norwich to Cambridge, Network Rail’s study states that – although there are some issues regarding crowding presently – the main driver for improvement is better connectivity rather than accommodating peak capacity. The study recognises the need for half hourly services on the route. The study also notes that “Kings Lynn to Cambridge [is] also infrequently served; as such, the Route Study investigates the feasibility of improving the frequency of services” to half hourly.
The main barrier to additional Norwich and King’s Lynn to Cambridge services is the capacity for trains through the network at Ely.
The study also recognises the aspirations for half hourly services from Norwich to Sheringham and Great Yarmouth but concludes that there is unlikely to be a business case for these. (End of overview and summary)
It is interesting to note that in this document and indeed in the framework there seems to be no mention of reinstating former rail routes or developing new ones. Neither do we see suggestions or discussions to be had with heritage railways to look at options for linking to mainline stations or working with train operating companies. Should there be?
Here is a link to the Norfolk Strategic Framework document. In Section 8 – the Conclusions and Next Steps, it states that:
This document is draft. Comments on it from all those interested in the future of the County will be welcome. This will inform an amended version of the document which will be considered at the Strategic Planning Member Forum later in the year before formally being considered for adoption by each of the participating bodies thereafter.
Within the section there are also a number of contact details. If you feel you have any comments or views that you would like to make on this document then the first point of contact should be made to: NSF@norfolk.gov.uk
If you have questions on the Norfolk Orbital Railway project then it would be good to hear from you. Contact details are:
David Bill: email@example.com
Paul Young: firstname.lastname@example.org
The King’s Lynn Hunstanton Railway Project Open Day in Hunstanton on 2nd December 2017 was a resounding success. Over 200 visitors attended the event, both families with young children, young adults, empty nesters and the ‘not-so-young’.
Visitors came from all over the country; a few former residents of Hunstanton now living overseas also attended. 138 petitions for a new railway to reconnect King’s Lynn with Hunstanton were signed. Signatories hailed from:
- King’s Lynn Hunstanton Area – 82 petitions (58% of total)
- Home Counties – 19 petitions (18% of total)
- Further afield, ranging from Derby to Bournemouth – 9 petitions (6% of total)
- Overseas; Italy, Germany, Canada – 3 petitions (2% of total)
- Petitions signed but without postcode – 25 petitions (16% of total)
Two presentations were made on the day by Bob Edwards, a rail expert on the project team. Railway experts from the team also circulated amongst the visitors throughout the day, explaining technical issues, answering questions about potential rail track routes, car parking for passengers, feasibility studies to be undertaken, funding and the type of railway which will ultimately link properly with the national rail network.
Anglia TV were present during the day and conducted 3 on-camera interviews with members of the Project Team. Later in the day, BBC Radio Norfolk attended the event and recorded three more interviews for broadcast. Elaine Bird took photographs for publication in January Town & Around. The event was also attended by Councillors: Andrew Jamieson, Michael de Chenery of Horsburgh and Richard Bird.
Rigil Kent (Chairman) said “I am overwhelmed with the extremely positive response from the public who attended our open day; everybody that I spoke to on the day was in support of our aim to re-establish a line through to Kings Lynn.
The aim of the day was to launch the project to the public officially and to answer any queries that people have to the best of our ability at this stage of the project. The next steps are to raise funds to organise a properly conducted feasibility study to officially ascertain the need, the viability, funding, operation, route and management of the project going forward.”
Next Steps: The Railway Project Group has already set up a bank account and the immediate next steps are to raise funding for a full Feasibility Study to examine all aspects of the proposal including route and rail station options, the provision of car parking, overall costs of the tender and consultancy process, build costs of line options, and its long-term financial viability. The economic benefits to local area businesses and to the communities served by the new rail service will also be examined and quantified.
A petition is also running and if you wish to sign it then please click here: Reinstate train line from King’s Lynn to Hunstanton
For more information please contact Georgina Turner: email@example.com
Earlier in the year we published an article on the new Swanage to Wareham service The 2017 trial diesel service between Swanage and Wareham finished on Sunday 3rd September 2017 and here is a statement from Mark Wooley, Director at the Swanage Railway Company.
“The full reinstatement of this fine branch line has been a 45 year struggle. The culmination of this effort – by many dedicated people – has only been possible through capital grant aid in recent years totalling £5.56m received through the Purbeck Community Rail Partnership (PCRP) from local authorities, the Department for Communities & Local Government’s Coastal Communities Fund and from oil giant BP.
A sizeable proportion of this (£3.2m) was invested by Dorset County Council and Purbeck District Council in Network Rail’s recent Poole to Wool re-signalling scheme which ensured passenger train access to and from the Swanage branch at Worgret Junction, and avoided prohibitive standalone project costs at a later date.
This level of investment represents a great act of faith in the long-standing project to reinstate a Swanage to Wareham train service and is very welcome. However, whilst the sum involved is large by heritage railway standards, it is something of an exceptional case and also far below the levels of investment required to implement a full service in the short term; a situation that, by coincidence, Christian Wolmar laments in his article in the same edition of RAIL.
It is also important to bear in mind that, vital though this grant aid has been to the Swanage Railway and the PCRP, the new service is being operated without any revenue support. Under the terms of a recently signed 99-year lease with Dorset County Council (owners of the freehold of most of the Swanage branch), the Swanage Railway has been obliged to operate a two-year trial service on 60 selected days in year one and 90 selected days in year two.
In year one, the service comprised four return trips a day at two-hourly intervals and was delivered as cost-effectively as possible by utilising a single staff shift and an integrated fare structure. Mindful of the need to avoid fare abstraction, the latter has been well received by many passengers because it allowed the ability to break a journey at Corfe Castle before travelling on to Swanage by heritage steam service. The fare, which for many was discountable, never attracted serious concerns.
The new Swanage to Wareham service is by definition a limited trial and will therefore not be optimal from the outset. We are very pleased with the first year of the trial service and our official footfall figures indicate a total passenger figure of over 13,000 for the 60 days of operation. This compares well with the PCRP’s target of 12,000 passengers. Surveys indicate that a high proportion of our passengers arrived and/or departed from Wareham by rail. Feedback received from South Western Railway tells us that Wareham station ‘entries and exits’ data for the 12-week period of the trial shows a significant increase over the same period in 2016. This was a key objective of the new service and is something to be proud of.
We look forward to delivering a 90 selected day trial service in 2018 and it is likely that there will be changes to the timetable and additional discount schemes made available for this.”